The Caucasus is a mountain range between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. It is considered as a part of the natural boundary between Europe and Asia. Geographically, it is a part of Western Asia, which is adjacent to northeastern Turkey and northwestern Iran. Culturally, some regions of Russia and the former Soviet republics are also known as a part of Eastern Europe.
The countries that are linked to the Caucasus are all isolated, and the ancient are lands inhabited by world’s most ethnically diversified people.Traveling in this expect, you are supposed to meet friendly locals, try local food that you can find nowhere else, and, of course, witness splendid mountain vistas.
In the Caucasus Mountains there are more than approximately 350 bird species. Caucasus snowcock is another attraction. The water bird species include marbled duck, white-fronted goose, and white-headed duck.
Numbers of breeding raptor populations are found here, and this area is an important corridor for migratory birds. Every summer and autumn, millions of birds fly through two major migration routes on the east coast and west coast of the Black Sea and the west coast of the Caspian Sea.
There are about 120 mammal species in the Caucasus, nearly 20 of which are endemic and threatened. The Caucasus region has both the newly evolved species and ancient relict species. Ancient and primitive mammals are found as unusual long-clawed mole-vole, and they are the representatives of the Mesocricetus, Sicista, and Apodemus.
Several large endangered mammal species are seen in this area, that includes the Caucasus tur, a member of the goat family. The Caspian monk seals breeds along the shores of the Caspian Sea.
Endangered small mammal species in the Caucasus include Mediterranean horseshoe bat, Mehely’s horseshoe bat, and Armenian birch mouse.
Reptiles are found in 90 species, and about 20 of which are endemic.
Some other notable reptiles include the endemic Caucasus viper, venom of this species is very much useful for stopping bleeding in surgery patients.
The colorful Caucasus salamander is the region’s best-known amphibian species, also, the Gorgan salamanders are also found here.
This region has more than 100 freshwater fish species, from which only about a dozen are common. Amongst the most appealing species are three lampreys, Caspiomyzon Wagner, Eudontomyzon mariae, and Lampetra lanceolata. Lampreys are jawless, scaleless fish. Another very old group of fish in the hotspot are seven species of sturgeon, including the famous Beluga sturgeon, the largest freshwater fish and the source of high-value caviar. Populations of all sturgeon species have been reduced through overharvesting, primarily for caviar, while other threats include water pollution and damming, which restricts anadromous migrations.